The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people, but there is no obvious sign of relief due to the high infection rate, long incubation period and lack of mature treatments or vaccines. Vaccines are the most promising solution for mitigating new virus strains.
In the past year, the COVID-19 vaccine has developed rapidly. Dozens of candidate vaccines are being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and effectiveness. Currently, the mRNA vaccine is the most widely administered vaccine in the world. Previously, there had been no commercial mRNA vaccine, and it had not been tested in large human trials and had not been clinically proven. And COVID-19 changed all that. Now, let's discovered the ingredients of Pfizer's vaccine and Moderna's vaccine. Find more COVID-19 vaccine info: https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/
As mentioned in the above table, both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use lipid nanoparticles to encase the RNA. According to the MIT, nanoparticles are basically tiny, greasy spheres that are used in COVID vaccines to protect the active ingredient (mRNA) and help it penetrate cells. It is within cells that the mRNA can go to work priming the immune system.
In mRNA vaccines, the mRNA is encapsulated in lipid delivery technology, which provides protection for the mRNA and safely delivers it to human cells where it can be released and the vaccine can take effect. one of the key cofactors of the LNP technology platform is ionizable lipids. The polarity of the ionizable lipids of the lipid delivery system changes with pH; at low pH, it carries a positive charge, which allows them to form a complex with the mRNA and act as a stabilizer of the mRNA. At physiological pH, it is neutral, reducing its toxic effects. At the periphery of the lipid delivery system, there are also polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified lipid molecules (PEGylated lipids) that prevent liposomes from clustering together and control the size of liposome particles, thereby preventing liposomes from being detected by the human immune system. The lipid delivery system also contains cholesterol and other helper lipid molecules that assist in forming the complete structure of lipid delivery. When the lipid delivery system encounters the cell membrane, it is engulfed into the cell to form vesicles called endosomes. Inside the cell, the pH of the endosome decreases, resulting in positively charged ionizable lipid molecules that alter the conformation of the lipid delivery system, allowing mRNA to be released from the endosome and bind to ribosomes responsible for protein production, directing the synthesis of viral proteins.
Biochempeg can produce and provide the following PEGs in mRNA vaccines.